biofeedback, brain injury, tbi


Biofeedback is a technique that uses visual or auditory feedback to help you learn how to control some of your involuntary bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate. Biofeedback is used to help manage or treat various physical and mental health problems, which include: 

  • Anxiety  
  • Stress 
  • Asthma 
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  
  • Chronic pain 
  • Constipation 
  • High blood pressure 
  • Stroke 
  • Urinary or fecal incontinence  
  • TBI symptoms relating to headaches, attention, mood, and mindfulness 

Biofeedback measures blood pressure, brain waves, heart and breathing rate, muscle tension, and skin temperature and conductivity of electricity. There are many types of biofeedback. These include: 

Type of Biofeedback  Description 
Brain waves 
  • Called neurofeedback, which uses an electroencephalogram (EEG) that monitors your brain waves through scalp sensors 
  • Called respiratory feedback, in which bands are placed around your abdomen and chest to monitor your breathing and respiratory rate  
Heart rate 
  • Uses a photoplethysmography to detect changes in blood volume through finger or earlobe sensors 
  • Also uses an electrocardiograph (ECG) to measure heart rate and heart rate variability through sensors placed on chest, lower torso, or wrists  
Muscle contraction 
  • Uses an electromyograph (EMG) to measure muscle tension through sensors placed over your skeletal muscles  
Sweat gland activity  
  • Uses an electrodermograph (EDG) to measure sweat gland activity and amount of sweat on skin, which can indicate anxiety 
Skin temperature 
  • Measures blood flow to your skin using sensors attached to your fingers or feet 
  • You can know when to begin relaxation techniques when you see your temperature drop due to stress 



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